Sources of African Background Author(s): Wayne Mulira Evaluated work(s): Source: Current Anthropology, Vol. 20, No . 1 (Mar., 1979), pp. 227-229 Published simply by: The School of Chicago, il Press for Wenner-Gren Base for Anthropological Research Secure URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2741903. Accessed: 06/06/2012 09: 42 Your utilization of the JSTOR archive signifies your acceptance of the Terms & Circumstances of Use, offered by. http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp JSTOR is a not-for-profit service in order to scholars, research workers, and pupils discover, work with, and build after a wide range of articles in a trustworthy digital store. We make use of information technology and tools to improve productivity and facilitate fresh forms of scholarship or grant. For more information regarding JSTOR, you should contact [email protected] org.

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Publish: Keith Pratt, School of Oriental Research, Durham DH1 3TH, England. August10-17. 43d International Our elected representatives of Americanists, Vancouver, B. C., Canada. Deadline to get abstractsNovember 15, 1978. Write: AlfredH. Siemens, Departmentof Geography, Universityof British Columbia, Vancouver, B. C., Canada V6T 1W5. August12-18. Intercontinental PoliticalScienceAssociation, 11th WorldCongress, Moscow, U. S i9000. S. L. Write: IPSA Secretariat, % Universityof Ottawa, Room 320, Tabaret, Ottawa, Canada KiN 6N5. your five. August20-September 14thPacificScience Congress, KhaU. S. T. R. Topic: NaturalResourcesof the Pacific barovsk, Ocean-For the main benefit Humanity. curiosity anthroof Of to pologists: Social and PoliticalAspectsof Use Natof ural Resourcesof the PacificOcean; Techniques of Populace, Urbanization, Migration. and Policy; Problems of Cooperationof the Pacific Countries; Destinies of Small Lenders and Fraction Groups; Environmental Problemsof the Pacific Relationsand Traditional Cultural Societies; Old of Migrations; Prehistoric Archaeology SoutheastAsia and Relations betweenAsia and America; Ethnic Odontology of the Pacific cycles Peoples; Languages of the Pacific cycles Region. Create: Organising Committee, 14th Pacific cycles Science Congress, 44 Vavilov St ., 117333 Moscow, U. S. H. R. Last week in August. Worldwide MusicologicalSociety, 3d images Themes: (a) Transplanted Symposium, Adelaide, Sydney. HistoEuropean Music Cultures-Towards a Comparative in riography, ArtNouveau and Jugendstil Music. Compose: (b) A. D. McCredie, University Adelaide, Adelaide, Ausof tralia. First days in Sept. 2010. International Convention Tradion tional Asian Treatments, Canberra, Sydney. Write: A. L. Basham, Department Oriental Civilizations, of Australian NationalUniversity, P. To. Box some, Canberra, A. C. Capital t. 2600, Sydney. 3-7. second Anthropological September Congress devoted Ales to Hrdlicka, Prague and Humpolec, Czechoslovakia. Write: V. V. Novotny, Salmovska 5, 120 00 Prague 2, Czechoslovakia. Septemnber 7th International 3-8. Congressof Classical Studies, Budapest, Hungary. Topics: AncientGreece from650 to 550 B. C.; The Mediterranean World inside the Hellenistic Epoch; The End in the Roman Empire. Write: L. Harmatta, MagyarTudomanyas Akademia, Hattyuu. 2, H-1015 Budapest, Hungary. September17-21. Worldwide Folk Music Council Examine Group upon HistoricalSources of Folk Music, sixth meeting, Austria. Write: Watts. Suppan, Hochschulefur Siuddal-Matien, Musik und Darstellende Kunstin Graz, Palais Meran, Leonhardstrasse A-8010 Graz, Luxembourg. 15, Sept. 24thInternational Our elected representatives the Historyof Art, of Bologna, Italia. Write: Cesare Gnudi, Soprintendenza alle Through Belle Arti56, Bologna Italia. Gallerie, First week of March. Conference the International of Associationof BuddhistStudies, Shanti Niketan, India. Compose: A. K. Narain, College or university Wisconsin-Madison, of Madison, Wis. 53706, U. S. A. October 11-13. 4thAnnualEuropeanStudiesConference, Omaha, Nebr., U. S. A. Deadline for abstracts: Might 1 . Create: Anthony...

Referrals: CARR, EDWARD 1967. Precisely what is history? Nyc: Random H. House. GREENBERG, J. They would. 1972. Linguisticevidence regardingBantu roots. Journal of AfricanHistory 13: 189-216. HERSKOVITS, J. 1959. Anthropology Meters. and The african continent: A larger perspective. Africa29: 225-57. LOWIE, R. D. 1915. Oral tradition and history: Debate and communication. AmericanAnthropologist seventeen: 597-99. OGOT, A. 1967. History of the southernLuo. Nyc: InterB. countrywide PublicationsService.

The Shadow theBrowl of

by simply BJORNKURTE 'N Department of Geology, Universityof Helsinki, Snellmaninkatu 5, SF-00170 Helsinki seventeen, Finland. 18 ix 80 Now, when ever any one without having coveringon his head... strivesto the utmost to distinguish broad daylight... a faraway object, he in practically invariablycontractshis brows to prevent the entranceof too much light. CHARLES DARWIN, The Expression of the Thoughts in Guy and Animals His loath, his tectrice, his sunburntface, The darkness of his eyebrows 'trace... J. M. RUNEBERG, The Soldier Youngster (translated C. W. Stork) by

The supraorbital torus is foundin all species of Homo (as well just as manyotherprimates)exceptin H. sapiens of modern type. It is hard findany mechanical(architectonic) to function for this. One possible and indeed possible function might be deducedfrom Darwin 's (1872) remarks the frown. upon He (and beforehim Gratioletand Spencer) pointed to the eye-shading effect the contracted of brows. Via such origins, then, the frownacquired an additional and even more importantrole as a great " manifestation emotion" or. in ethological of parlance, a threatdisplay. FollowingDarwin 's reasoning, von Haartman (1974) suggeststhat the torus originatedas an version protect eyes from for the directsunlight a steppe in landscape. The torusmusthave afflicted visual imageof the living the face in a profoundmanner, might be seen in various life while reconstructions. tendto read a menacing into most of All of us air them, and we may possibly suspect that some of the lay unwillingness to accept an evolutionary originof man stems not a very little from sucha subconscious impact. civilised Did humanbeings come down from such aggressive-looking brutes? As Guthrie (1974: 267) says, " Even in humans, the exaggerated protrudingbonybrowsof an old guy gorillaconnote awesomeintimidation, whichhas caused it to be easy for writersto portrayit being a dangerous beast, even thoughit is a vegetarian and rather shy. " What we knowledge an " intimidation while stare" most likely reachesits extremity in the novelty helmet, where, Lorenz (1943) reveals, as the effect due to a combination two eliciting is of important stimuli: the shadingbar over the eye, which in turn casts a shadow like a deeplypulledbrow, plus the apparently tight-lipped, " grimly" closed oral cavity. In the case of the eagle, these are generally " super1 1 thankLars von Haartman and David Pilbeam pertaining to discussion.

stimuli, " however as vonseiten Haartmanhas shown (1974), it can be this kind of picturethat springs head fromthe poet person 's descripto tionof the soldierboy is dead father(and farmoreeffectively family room brunahyn/ in theSwedishoriginal: Hans hatt, hansplym, Och skuggan franhalns dgonbryn). traitsin fossilman of The ethological significance strength Guthrie(1974) features providedus with has been littleexplored. intimidation an excellentdiscussionof status-enhancing charstrucactersin modernman. Amongthese, visiblyprotruding tures (especiallyin males), elizabeth. g., nose area, chin, beard, penis (see part. It can be interalso Eibl-Eibesfeldt 1973), perform a prominent estingto notice that such features are oftenstressedin Palaeoto lithic art, here not only with reference men: the may also exaggeration femalecharacters " Venus" figures of in and suggest status-enhancing effects. notedby bothGuthrie As Eibl-Eibesfeldt, social-signal the function genitaliaand secof ondarysexual features tendedto be overlooked. has torusof state, NeanIt is easy to see the fact that supraorbital with appropriatefacial display, dertal guy, in combination creates highly a effective violence stare, being pointedout simply by Guthrie(1974: 267). While agonisticto hostile other people, have a reassuring impact deon the displaywould most probably pendents (the soldier boy warmingto his father 'sgallant image). Nevertheless , shadedeyes may the also assistotherkinds of mimicaldisplay. A well known Neandertalreconstruction simply by McGregor (1926, profile: discover discussionin Kurth 1958: witha touch 222) seemsto emanaterespect-inspiring sagacity in the wily. Further, the shadingof the eye mightassist in the disguising exact direction the look (see Guthrie1974: of of 269 fora discussion theethological of significance an analomay be put forgous case). Without a doubt additionalsuggestions ward. a Around the otherhand, it is evidentthatthe torusimparts certhusreducing range the to tainstereotypy thefacialexpression, in of possiblesignals. This might give the state H. sapiens an adaptive advantage. It could be added that the torus-less conditionis paedomorphic(the characteris not presentin small Neandertal children). As Lorenz (1943) has shown, characteristics aggression-inhibiting hencepotenare and paedomorphic tially adaptable in a species which got by then bought a efficient fairly armoury. torusis presentin both genders, with only The supraorbital Their slightdimorphism. loss could perhapsimplya shiftfrom a comparatively dichotomyto a stereotyped adult-juvenile trichotomy, with morehighly articulated male-female-juvenile a great increaseddifferentiation social roles. of Aggression threatdisplay is oftena sham. The obserby vation that the " grimand proud" eagle is in fact, to a wonderful a in extent, carrion-feeder (Lorenz 1943) is parenthetical this interconnection, but Guthrie 'sobservation the shynessof goon to rillasis thought-provoking. Is it thatthe personality is in aggressiveness inverseto it is apparentexpression screen? the of Whateverits value, reduction the supraorbital fresh departure within a torusin L. sapiens presents completely with the evolutionary important history our genus and suggests of ethological transform. We are reminded the " punctuated-equilibrium" of so simply by theory development ably put forward Eldredge evoluand Gould (1972). According the idea, to significant tionary changeis mainlyassociatedwithallopatricspeciation, inside the especially smallmarginal populations. This kind of favours watch of L. sapiensas a speciesdistinct from hominids torus-bearing and pointsup the difficulty the Gestaltof hominid evoluof tion discussedby D. Pilbeam at a 1978 Nobel symposium in steps in the Bofors. (Whether varieties like Skhuil man symbolize appears processof differentiation resultfrominterbreeding or never to have been definitely settled. )PerhapsI shouldadd that regarding neandertizalensis a distinctspecies need not H. as indicate the least upon our look at of this types as an expoin nentof highly evolvedhumanity. all we realize, Neandertal Intended for 229

Volume. 20

D 1 2. March 1979 No .

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